DISCOVERING THE INDEPENDENCY OF SUFISM IN ISLAMIC SCIENCES

THIRD CENTURY IN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

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  • Scientific Research Journal AITU N/A

Abstract

Motivated and inspired by claim of a third century Sufi, Abu al-Qasim Junayd al-Baghdadi (d. 298/910)

and his mystical school of thought that ‘Sufism is a science of religion with its own issues, methods and proofs’, curiosity has led to the interrogation on research problem of discovering Sufism as an independent systematic science. Answer to this question can, positively, be found in the historical analysis of third century AH. Sufism. It is a significant effort which will essentially overrule the “Aryan Reaction Theory” that declares Sufism an Indo-Persian product. According to this, Sufism has not grown independently and spontaneous. Instead, this theory proves certain resemblances between Sufi doctrines and some of the Indo- Persian systems, for instance, the Vedanta Sara. However, hypothesis of this research work supports ‘the Independent Theory’ which considers Sufism as an independent science of religion with entirely independent growth. Later influences cannot undermine the roots of originality and independency. Primarily, a documentary inquiry of the historical events will be chief method of research. Moreover, an analytical study of writings of the Sufis, both original and interpreted sources, from third century AH will be applied as research method for this academic study. In proving its independency, three major aspects will be discussed including independent Sufi Schools, separate authentic texts to the Sufi sciences and its own ijtihad on issues related to mysticism. Results of research inquiry show that Persian influence can only be proved in sixth century and no influence cannot be shown to be exerted from the latter century on the former one. In third century, three principal developments support to prove independency of Sufism as science of religion. Firstly, larger Sufi School had been developed in the same century e.g. the Baghdadi School of Ma’ruf al-Karkhi’s students including Sari al-Saqati (d. 254 AH), Junayd al- Baghdadi (d. 298

AH), Hareth al-Muhasibi (d. 249 AH) and Abu ‘l-Husayn alNuri (d. 295 AH) etc; the Khurasani School including Bish al-Hafi (d. 227 AH), Ibn Karram (d. 255 AH), Yahya Ibn Muadh al-Razi (d. 258 AH) etc ;

The Damascene-Eyptian School of Dhul-Nun al-Misri (d. 245 AH), Abu’l Hassan Ahmad Bin Abi al-Huwari

(d. 230 AH); and the Mulamti School of Nishapur which was represented by Abu Hamdun al-Qassar (d.

271 AH). Second development was that the authentic texts, which introduced certain terms and removed uncertainties, also appeared in this period. For instance, “Kitab al-luma” by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj al-Tusi and the book “Qut al-Qulub” by Abu Talib al-Makki (d. 386 AH) are the prominent one. Thirdly, its own ijtihad and independent perceptions on the issues led to the curse and wrath of jurists and theologians. This hostility against the Sufis continued to grow in Egypt, Syria and Iraq, and eventually, it had reached the point of accusing Sufis of takfir, and ledito the persecution and even execution of Sufis in the case of al- Hallaj. All these developments prove the “Independent Theory” that Sufism emerged as an independent science of religion with its own issues and doctrines derived from Quran and Sunnah and represented the “Esoteric Doctrine” of the Prophet (SAW) like other sciences of religion in Islam.

Key Words:  Sufism, Third Century AH, Science of Religion, Sufi Schools, Sufi Texts, Ijtihad, the Aryan

Reaction Theory, The Independent Theory, Esoteric Doctrine

Published

2024-04-29

How to Cite

AITU, S. R. J. (2024). DISCOVERING THE INDEPENDENCY OF SUFISM IN ISLAMIC SCIENCES: THIRD CENTURY IN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS. AITU SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH JOURNAL, 1(1). Retrieved from https://ojs.aitusrj.org/files/article/view/7

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